About

Editorial Policies


Focus and Scope

The journal Pharmacia publishes original research papers, preliminary communications, short communications (notes) and review articles, in the pharmaceutical and related sciences.

The Journal also publishes announcements, reports of conferences, biographies (anniversaries, awards, etc.) as well as book reviews.

Pharmacia is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to pharmaceutical and allied sciences. Topics covered are: analytics, biochemistry, biopharmaceutics, biotechnology, cell cultures, clinical pharmacy, drug delivery, drug design, drug disposition, drug stability, medicinal chemistry, metabolism, molecular modeling, basic and clinical pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, social pharmacy, radiopharmaceuticals, toxicology.

The journal is published by the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Science Society since 1954. Since 2019, it is published in a collaboration with the ARPHA platform of Pensoft Publishers. The journal archive is available online since 2007. 


Editorial Policy

Original research papers should contain unpublished results of original research, which must be presented in sufficient detail to ensure the reproducibility of the described experiments.

Preliminary communications are brief scientific contributions whose character requires rapid publication without supplying the details necessary to reproduce the described experiments.

Short communications (notes) provide reports on short, but completed, research or descriptions of original laboratory techniques (methods, apparatus).

Review articles are concise and critical surveys of novel accomplishments in the author's research field. They may also contain original theoretical considerations. The results and role of the author's research must be clearly distinguished from the results of the investigators referenced.

Only papers supplying previously unpublished scientific information will be entered in the first three of the above categories. Authors should specify to which of the four categories the submitted material should be allocated. Authors of review articles are advised to consult the Editorial Board prior to submitting the article.

The manuscript should be submitted in grammatically and stylistically correct English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these) and written in the most concise form, which still ensures clarity of presentation.

The form and illustrations of the manuscripts should comply with the papers recently published in the Journal.

Manuscripts submitted to the Journal are only accepted on the understanding that they are subject to editorial review and review of at least two independent referees, that they have not been and will not be published whole or in a part in any other journal, and that recommendations to comply with ethical standards when performing clinical and other biological experiments have been adhered to.

In case of contradicting reviews of 2 referees, the manuscript is sent to a third peer review and/or subjected to editorial evaluation. Each article accepted for publication is language edited.

Publishing frequency is four times a year (volume).


Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.


Copyright Notice

License and Copyright Agreement

In submitting the manuscript to any of Pensoft’s journals, authors certify that: 

  • They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements. 
  • The work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; its publication has been approved by all author(s) and responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out. 
  • They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere. 
  • They agree to the following license and copyright agreement:

Copyright

  • Copyright on any article is retained by the author(s). Regarding copyright transfers please see below. 
  • Authors grant Pensoft Publishers a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. 
  • Authors grant Pensoft Publishers commercial rights to produce hardcopy volumes of the journal for sale to libraries and individuals. 
  • Authors grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its original authors and citation details are identified. 
  • The article and any associated published material is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0):

Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)

Anyone is free:

to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work 
to Remix — to adapt the work

Under the following conditions:

Attribution. The original authors must be given credit. 

  • For any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are. 
  • Any of these conditions can be waived if the copyright holders give permission. 
  • Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights.

The full legal code of this license.

Copyright Transfers

Any usage rights are regulated through the Creative Commons License. Since Pensoft Publishers is using the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), anyone (the author, his/her institution/company, the publisher and the public) is free to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work as long as the original author is credited (see above). Therefore, specific usage rights cannot be reserved by the author or his/her institution/company and the publisher cannot include a statement "all rights reserved" in any published paper.

This page was adapted from its equivalent at Copernicus Publications.

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Privacy Statement

The personal information used on this website is to be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal. It will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Authors Guidelines

Due to alterations in the editorial policy of Journal Pharmacia, the following changes will be applied:

Since March 2019 the Journal will be published only in English, in printed and in electronic version. At the end of the year one printed copy will be submitted to libraries and other public scientific organizations. In order to provide for this, a publication fee will be imposed, since Pharmacia does not have any income source like subscription charges or as annual membership charges of author(s).

Thanks to generous support of the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Scientific Society, the journal charges a minor publication fee of 100 EUROs. Please contact the society at pharmacia@bsphs.org to provide payment after acceptance of your manuscript.

The published manuscripts will be available online in open access format at https://pharmacia.pensoft.net/articles.

Content and structure of the manuscripts

Body Text: All papers should be in grammatically correct English. Non-native English speaking authors are required to have their manuscripts checked by a native English speaker prior to submission. Use either British/Commonwealth or American English provided that the language is consistent within the paper. A manuscript must be written with precision, clarity, and economy. The voice - active or passive - and the tense used should be consistent throughout the manuscript. Avoid the use of parenthetical comments and italics or bold for emphasis.

Spacing, Fonts, and Page Numbering: Single-space all material (text, quotations, figure legends, tables, references, etc.). Separate paragraphs with a blank line. Use a 12-point font (preferably Times New Roman). All of the manuscripts should be presented in the native format of the word processor used.

The preferred text-processors are: Microsoft Word and Word Perfect. Please do not send ASCII files as relevant data may be lost. Include also the files containing computer generated graphics, artwork, bitmaps, and/or scanned images in one of the following formats: CDR, HPGL, WMF, EPS, TIF, PCX and JPG. For large image files, use one of the file compressing programs (ZIP, ARJ, RAR).

The manuscripts should not exceed the following limits:

Original papers – the core text (without the abstract, bibliography, figures and tables) should fit 6-8 pages.

Review articles (without the abstract, bibliography, figures and tables) should not exceed 12 pages.

Preliminary communicationsthe core text (including the abstract, bibliography, figures and tables) should fit 1-2 pages.

Short communications (notes)Short communications are published as rapidly as possible. The length of a manuscript is limited to 3 pages (including short summary; subdivisions are not required; the "Experimental" - if there is one - should be marked), up to 15 citations of literature and a maximum of 2 supplementary materials (schemes, figures, tables) are allowed.


Manuscript design

The titles of the submitted papers should be short and informative; double titles should be avoided. The title should be in a sentence case (only scientific, geographic or person names should be with a first capital letter, i.e. Elater ferrugineus L., Germany, etc.), and should include an accurate, clear and concise description of the reported work, avoiding abbreviations.

Authors and Affiliations: Provide the complete names of all authors, and their addresses for correspondence, including e.g., institutional affiliation (e.g. university, institute), location (street, boulevard), city, state/province (if applicable), and country. One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to ensure that the author list and the individual contributions to the study are accurate and complete. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all consortium members and their affiliations should be listed after the Acknowledgements section.

Headings and subheadings: Main headings: The body text should be subdivided into different sections with appropriate headings. Where possible, the following standard headings should be used: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods (Experimental Part), Results, Discussion (or Results and Discussion), Conclusion, References. These headings need to be in bold font on a separate line and start with a first capital letter. Please do not number headings or subheadings.

Abstract and Keywords:

The abstract of less than 150 words should contain solely the essential results and conclusions of the presented work. Textual formulations from the title should not be repeated and the findings rather than the aim of the work should be described. The abstract should be written in the third person and ready for input into the submission module.

The abstract should be accompanied by 3 to 5 keywords, given below the abstract to describe the content of the paper avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Keywords should be in alphabetical order and ideally differ from the words used in the title.

  • Introduction − The motivation or purpose of your research should appear in the Introduction, where you state the questions you sought to answer, and then provide some of the historical basis for those questions.
  • Methods − Provide sufficient information to allow
  • to allow someone to repeat your work. A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures, and statistical procedures is especially important in papers describing field studies, simulations, or experiments. If you list a product (e.g., animal food, analytical device), supply the name and location of the manufacturer. Give the model number for equipment used. Supply complete citations, including author (or editor), title, year, publisher, and version number, for computer software mentioned in your article. Explanation of the study design (randomization, group formation / stratification, crossover studies) and experimental conditions; chemicals used; apparatuses and devices indicating the names and domiciles of the manufacturers/suppliers; detailed information about the experimental animals or cell lines along with keeping resp. culture conditions; information about the experiment and methods used (with literature references); detailed description of new methods; explanation of mathematical symbols and formulas; description of the statistical method used (referring to unpublished programs or computer models is not sufficient).

In the case of well known inorganic or organic compounds chemical formulae or common abbreviations may be used (e.g. NaCI, H2SO4, CH3OH, C6H6: Ac, Eth, Me, Phe, DMSO) under "Experimental Part". In other parts of the paper this is not desirable.

For all newly synthesized compounds adequate evidence to establish identity and degree of purity must be provided. In general, this evidence should include elemental analyses for carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen (and/or halogen), if present. Supplying high-resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data in lieu of elemental analyses should be avoided whenever possible. HRMS data must always be accompanied with a proof of the degree of purity of the sample.

The following is the recommended style for analytical and spectral data presentation:

Specific Rotation:

[a]23D –222 (c 0.35, MeOH).

Abbreviations: a = specific rotation; D = the sodium D line or wavelength of light used for determination; the superscript number, temperature (°C) at which the determination was made; In parentheses: c stands for concentration; the number following c is the concentration in grams per 100 mL; followed by the solvent name or formula.

NMR Spectroscopy:

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) d 0.85 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.28–1.65 (m, 8H, 4´CH2), 4.36–4.55 (m, 2H, H-1 and H-2), 7.41 (d, J 8.2 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.76 (dd, J 6.0, 8.2 Hz, 1H, H-1'), 8.09 (br s, 1H, NH).

13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) d 12.0, 14.4, 23.7, 26.0, 30.2, 32.5, 40.6 (C-3), 47.4 (C-2'), 79.9, 82.1, 120.0 (C-7), 123.7 (C-5), 126.2 (C-4).

Abbreviations: d = chemical shift in parts per million (ppm) downfield from the standard; J = coupling constant in hertz; multiplicities s = singlet; d = doublet; t = triplet; q = quartet; and br = broadened. Detailed peak assignments should not be made unless these are supported by definitive experiments such as isotopic labelling, DEPT, or two-dimensional NMR experiments.

IR Spectroscopy:

IR (KBr) n 3236, 2957, 2924, 1666, 1528, 1348, 1097, 743 cm–1.

Abbreviation: n = wavenumber of maximum absorption peaks in reciprocal centimetres.

Mass Spectroscopy:

MS m/z (relative intensity): 305 (M+H, 100), 128 (25).

HRMS–FAB (m/z): [M+H]+ calcd for C21H38N4O6, 442.2791; found, 442.2782.

Abbreviations: m/z = mass-to-charge ratio; M = molecular weight of the molecule itself; M+ = molecular ion; HRMS = high-resolution mass spectrometry; FAB = fast atom bombardment.

UV–Visible Spectroscopy:

UV (CH3OH) lmax (log e) 220 (3.10), 425 nm (3.26).

Abbreviations: lmax = wavelength of maximum absorption in nanometres; e = extinction coefficient.

Quantitative analysis:

Anal. Calcd for C17H24N2O3: C 67.08, H 7.95, N 9.20. Found: C 66.82, H 7.83, N 9.16.

All values are given in percentages.

Melting and boiling points:

mp 163–165 °C (lit. 166 °C)

mp 180 °C dec.

bp 98 °C

These specific abbreviations, listed above, should be used consequently as well as those described in "Abbreviations" part.

Studies in humans or animals must comply with the pertinent internationally valid legal provisions/guidelines. Refer to the obtaining of the approval of an ethics committee (humans/animals). Clinical studies must meet the requirements specified in the Declaration of Helsinki (Somerset West) ("informed consent").

  • Results, Discussion (or Results and Discussion). Results must be presented precisely using tables and/or figures, if applicable. Avoid duplicate presentation of results in figures and tables.

In this part, no results must be repeated, but the importance of the study should be emphasized and conclusions drawn. The findings may be compared with results from other studies (referring to the respective literature).

  • Conclusion. This should state clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance. Summary illustrations may be included.
  • Acknowledgments: An acknowledgment section (including financial support) may be included. It should be placed after the manuscript text and before the references.
  • References. The list of References should be included after the final section of the main article body. A blank line should be inserted between single-spaced entries in the list. Authors are requested to include links to online sources of articles, whenever possible! 

Citations and References

Citations within the text: Before submitting the manuscript, please check each citation in the text against the References and vice-versa to ensure that they match exactly.

Citations in the text should be formatted as follows:

One author: Smith (1990) or (Smith 1990)

Note: The citations format depends on the way it is incorporated within the article’s text:

Example:

  1. According to Smith (1990), these findings…

  2. These findings have been first reported in the beginning of the nineties (Smith 1990).

Two authors: Brock and Gunderson (2001) or (Brock and Gunderson 2001)

Note: When choosing between formats refer back to examples above.

Three or more authors: Smith et al. (1998) or (Smith et al. 1998)

Note: When choosing between formats refer back to examples above.

When citing more than one source, in-text citations should be ordered by the year of publication, starting with the earliest one:

(Smith et al. 1998, 2000, 2016; Brock and Gunderson 2001; Felt 2006).

Note: When you have a few citations from the same author but from different years (such as the case with Smith et al. above), the first year is taken into consideration when ordering the sources (in this case 1998, which is why Smith et al. come first in the list).

When having two or more fully identical citations (this can happen when you have more than one reference with exactly the same authors and years for one or two authors, or the same first author and year for author teams of three or more), the references are distinguished by adding the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the years and this marking is followed in the in-text citations, respectively:

(Reyes-Velasco et al. 2018a, 2018b)

Authorship references for species should include a "," between author and year:

Brianmyia stuckenbergi Woodley, 2012.

References: It is important to format the references properly, because all references will be linked electronically as completely as possible to the papers cited. It is desirable to add a DOI (digital object identifier) number for either the full-text or title and abstract of the article as an addition to traditional volume and page numbers. If a DOI is lacking, it is recommended to add a link to any online source of an article. Please use the following style for the reference list (or download the Pensoft EndNote style): here

Published Papers:
Polaszek A, Alonso-Zarazaga M, Bouchet P, Brothers DJ, Evenhuis NL, Krell FT, Lyal CHC, Minelli A, Pyle RL, Robinson N, Thompson FC, van Tol J (2005) ZooBank: The open-access register for zoological taxonomy: Technical Discussion Paper. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 62: 210-220.

Accepted Papers:
Same as above, but ''in press'' appears instead the year in parentheses.

Electronic Journal Articles:
Mallet J, Willmott K (2002) Taxonomy: Renaissance or Tower of Babel? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18 (2): 57-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00061-7.

Paper within conference proceedings:
Orr AG (2006) Odonata in Bornean tropical rain forest formations: Diversity, endemicity and applications for conservation management. In: Cordero Rivera A (Ed.) Forest and Dragonflies. Fourth WDA International Symposium of Odonatology, Pontevedra (Spain), July 2005. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 51-78.

Book chapters:
Mayr E (2000) The biological species concept. In: Wheeler QD, Meier R (Eds) Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory: A Debate. Columbia University Press, New York, 17-29.

Books:
Goix N, Klimaszewski J (2007) Catalogue of Aleocharine Rove Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 166 pp.

Book with institutional author:
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature. Fourth Edition. London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

PhD thesis:
Dalebout ML (2002) Species identity, genetic diversity and molecular systematic relationships among the Ziphiidae (beaked whales). PhD thesis, Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland.

Link/URL:
BBC News: Island leopard deemed new species http://news.bbc.co.uk/

Citations of Public Resource Databases: It is highly recommended all appropriate datasets, images, and information to be deposited in public resources. Please provide the relevant accession numbers (and version numbers, if appropriate). Accession numbers should be provided in parentheses after the entity on first use. Examples of such databases include, but are not limited to:

Providing accession numbers to data records stored in global data aggregators allows us to link your article to established databases, thus integrating it with a broader collection of scientific information. Please hyperlink all accession numbers through the text or list them directly after the References in the online submission manuscript.

All journal titles should be spelled out completely and should NOT be italicized.

Provide the publisher's name and location when you cite symposia or conference proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication date if both are given. Do not list abstracts or unpublished material in the References. They should be quoted in the text as personal observations, personal communications, or unpublished data, specifying the exact source, with date if possible. When possible, include URLs for articles available online through library subscription or individual journal subscription, or through large international archives, indexes and aggregators, e.g., PubMedCentral, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, etc. URLs for pdf articles that are posted on personal websites only should be avoided.

Authors are encouraged to cite in the References list the publications of the original descriptions of the taxa treated in their manuscript.

Ordering references: All references should be ordered alphabetically.

If the references have the same first author and a varying number of co-authors, the ordering should be based on the number of co-authors starting with the lowest as follows:

Smith J (2018) Article Title. Journal Name 1: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3897

Smith J, Gunderson A (2017) Article Title. Journal Name 1: 10-20. https://doi.org/10.3897 

Smith J, Gunderson A, Brock B (2015) Article Title. Journal Name 1: 20-30. https://doi.org/10.3897

In the occasion of more than one article from the same first author within any of the categories above, the references should be ordered chronologically.

If both the first author and year of publication match within the categories above, the references are distinguished by adding the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year of publication and this marking is followed in the in-text citations, respectively.


Illustrations, Figures and Tables

Figures and illustrations are accepted in the following image file formats:

  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • TIFF (at least 300dpi resolution, with LZW compression)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • JPEG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • GIF
  • BMP
  • SVG 

Should you have any problems in providing the figures in one of the above formats, or in reducing the file below 20 MB, please contact the Editorial Office at journals@pensoft.net.

Figure legends: All figures should be referenced consecutively in the manuscript; legends should be listed consecutively immediately after the References. For each figure, the following information should be provided: Figure number (in sequence, using Arabic numerals − i.e. Figure 1, 2, 3 etc.); short title of figure (maximum 15 words); detailed legend, up to 300 words.

Illustrations of measurable morphological traits should bear mute scale bars, whose real size is to be given in the figure captions.

Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.

Structural drawings. Structural drawings should be produced using a drawing program such as ChemWindow, ACD/ChemSketch, MDL ISIS Draw, or similar and should be pasted directly into the article.

Pharmaceutical substances. For the identification of pharmaceutical substances, the International Nonproprietary Names (INN) should be used. Registered Trade Marks (usually indicated with ®; in an article this sign should only be used when it is first mentioned or used in the summary), trivial names and chemical nomenclature can be added.

Nomenclature. Nomenclature and spelling should conform to the directions given by IUPAC.

For nomenclature of peptides, see Neuropeptides, Vol. 1, 1981, p. 231.

The nomenclature of receptors and their subtypes should conform to the TIPS 1995 Receptor & Ion Channel Nomenclature Supplement (Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Receptor Nomenclature Supplement 1995).

The trivial name of the enzyme may be used in the text, but the systematic name and classification number according to Enzyme Nomenclature, rev. edn. (Academic Press, New York, NY, 1984) should be quoted the first time the enzyme is mentioned.

Units of measurement. Units of measurement are determined by the directions of the International Units System SI as symbols; M instead of mol/l or mol * l-1 is allowed.

Botanical names. Botanical names (species, genus) should be marked in italics.

Abbreviations. The following abbreviations should be used consequently (except in the title and all subtitles). All other abbreviations have to be explained in the manuscript at first usage, if aforementioned directions are not applicable. Abs. = absolute: anh. = anhydrous; b.p.; b.r. = boiling point, -range; calcd. = calculated; CC = column chromatography; conc. = concentrated; dec. = decomposition , eq. = equation; Fig. = figure; GC = gas chromatography, - chromatogram, HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography, - chromatogram; i.m. = intramuscular; i.p. = intraperitoneal; IR = infrared; i.v. = intravenous; lit. = literature value; m.p.; m.r. = melting point, -range; MS = mass spectometry, mass spectrum; NMR = nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum; PC = paper chromatography, - chromatogram, % = per cent, percentage, p.o. = peroral; s.c. = subcutaneous; TLC = thin layer chromatography, - chromatogram; UV = ultraviolet; ADP, CDP, GDP, IDP, UDP = 5'-pyrophosphates of adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, inosine, uridine; AMP etc. = adenosine 5'-monophosphate etc.; ADP etc. = adenosine 5'-diphosphate etc.; ATP etc. = adenosine 5'-triphosphate etc.; CM-cellulose = carboxymethylcellulose; CoA and acetyl-CoA = coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives; DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; EGTA = ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; FAD = flavin-adenine dinucleotide; FMN = flavin mononucleotide; NAD = nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide; NADP = nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NMN = nicotinamide mononucleotide; RNA = ribonucleic acid; Tris = 2-amino-2-hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-diol.

Correspondence. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Tables: Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, 2, 3 etc.). Tables should also have a title that summarizes the whole table, maximum 15 words. Detailed legends may then follow, but should be concise.

Small tables can be embedded within the text, in portrait format (note that tables on a landscape page must be reformatted onto a portrait page or submitted as additional files). These will be typeset and displayed in the final published form of the article. Such tables should be formatted using the 'Table object' in a word processing program to ensure that columns of data are kept aligned when the file is sent electronically for review. Do not use tabs to format tables or separate text. All columns and rows should be visible, please make sure that borders of each cell display as black lines. Colour and shading should not be used; neither should commas be used to indicate decimal values. Please use a full stop to denote decimal values (i.e., 0.007 cm, 0.7 mm).

Larger datasets can be uploaded separately as Supplementary Files. Tabular data provided as supplementary files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls), as an OpenOffice spreadsheets (.ods) or comma separated values file (.csv). As with all uploaded files, please use the standard file extensions.

Tables and diagrams should be designed in a fashion that enables their understanding without referring to the text. Presentation of the same results in figures and tables will not be accepted.​​​​​


Supplementary Files

Online publishing allows an author to provide datasets, tables, video files, or other information as supplementary information, greatly increasing the impact of the submission. Uploading of such files is possible in Step 6 of the submission process.

The maximum file size for each Supplementary File is 20 MB.

The Supplementary Files will not be displayed in the printed version of the article but will exist as linkable supplementary downloadable files in the online version.

While submitting a supplementary file the following information should be completed:

  • File format (including name and a URL of an appropriate viewer if format is unusual)

  • Title of data

  • Description of data

All supplementary files should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'See supplementary file 1: Movie 1" for the original data used to perform this analysis.

Ideally, the supplementary files should not be platform-specific, and should be viewable using free or widely available tools. Suitable file formats are:

For supplementary documentation:

  • PDF (Adobe Acrobat)

For animations:

  • SWF (Shockwave Flash)

For movies:

  • MOV (QuickTime)

  • MPG (MPEG)

For datasets:

  • XLS (Excel spreadsheet)

  • CSV (Comma separated values)

  • ODS (OpenOffice spreadsheets)

As for images, file names should be given in the standard file extensions. This is especially important for Macintosh users, since the Mac OS does not enforce the use of standard file extensions. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet).


Revising your article

Authors must submit the revised version of the manuscript using Track Changes/Comments tools of Word so that the Subject Editor can see the corrections and additions.

Authors must address all critiques of the referees in a response letter to the editor and submit it along with the revised manuscript through the online editorial system. In case a response letter is not submitted by the authors, the editor has the right to reject the manuscript without further evaluation.

When submitting corrections to proofs (during the layout stage), authors must upload the latest proof (in PDF format) containing their revisions as track changes.


Concise Copyediting Instructions

The copyediting instructions below represent a concise summary of the journal's formatting requirements described in finer detail in the Author Guidelines. The instructions are intended for use by the authors during preparation of the final revised versions of their manuscripts, technical editors, copy editors and typesetters.  

Author names

  • Omit titles, degrees, etc.
  • Provide ORCID if available

Affiliation

(Department,) Institution, City, Country

Article title

Title of article: Subtitle of article

  • Title: Sentence case
  • Colon between title and subtitle (if any)
  • No footnotes
  • No bold (use when needed sub-/superscript, and/or italics only for the terms in Latin)
  • Higher taxa within the title should be separated with commas and not with a semicolon

Running head

  • A short version of title up to 50 characters (including spaces); normally the short title should have been suggested by the authors and checked for clarity by the copy editor

Abstract

  • No references to tables, figures, etc., no footnotes
  • No citations (preferably)
    • If citations unavoidable: Complete citations, allowing unambiguous identification of cited publication!
  • Must be written in third person
  • Note: The abstract has to be a stand-alone entity, to present a really well written and concise summary of the article! A special care for copy editors to check!
  • Designations of nomenclatural novelties should be in bold and spelled in the way suggested ( sp. nov., gen. nov., comb. nov. )

Keywords (up to 8 words)

keyword a, keyword b, keyword n

  • Do not repeat words from the title
  • Listed in alphabetical order and separated by commas
  • Lowercase letters, except proper names
  • No bold font
  • Without any punctuation marks after last keyword

Tables

  • Table caption: Start with label "Table N." in bold. Sentence case, i.e.:
    • Table 2. Table caption text.
  • Numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals
  • Heading for every column (including the leftmost!)
  • No shading of cells, rows, columns; no colored fonts
  • No horizontal or vertical lines in table body
  • Same number of decimal places for same statistics (usually within same column)
  • Text formatting in the cell without paragraph and line break
  • Table must be in an editable format (.docx, .xlsx, etc., not as images)
  • Caption and footnotes as texts (not as part of a table)

Figures

  • Figure caption: Start with label "Figure N." in bold. Sentence case, i.e.:
    • Figure 6. Figure caption text.
  • Numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals
  • Figure parts: Use capital letters in bold. No punctuation separator, i.e.:
      • Figure 1. Figure general caption text. A part caption text B part caption text N part caption text.
    • If abbreviations are used, these are placed after the parts with a colon, i.e.:
      Abbreviations: xxxx
    • If there are scale bars on the figure parts, reference to them is last and in the format: Scale bars: 20 μm (D, N, O, Q); 50 μm (F, K); 10 μm (G, P); 5 μm (H); 100 μm (M).
    • High quality (at least 300 dpi)
    • Text sharp and readable (e.g., no overlap of text and graphical elements like lines)
    • White or transparent background
    • No image border
    • Caption as text (not as part of the image)

      Capitalization

      • Article title: Sentence case
      • Running head: Sentence case
      • Section and subsection titles:
        • For separated titles (usually H1-H3): Sentence case
        • For paragraph titles (usually H4): Sentence case
      • Table captions: Sentence case
      • Headings of table rows and columns:
        • Sentence case or lower case (check for consistency only!)
      • Figure captions: Sentence case
      • In text body: Nouns followed by numerals/letters (citations of figures, tables, appendices and supplementary files) e.g.:
        • Fig. 4; Figs 1, 2; Table 2; Appendix 1
      • In text body: Titles of articles, book chapters, books, tests
      • In references: Sentence case

      Equations and statistical symbols

      • Typeface
        • standard typeface for Greek letters, sub-/superscripts, and abbreviations that are not variables
        • italic typeface for all other statistical symbols
      • Space before and after equal/inequality signs
      • Same number of decimal places for decimal values
      • Omit the zero before a decimal fraction, when the statistic cannot exceed 1, e.g., p = .34
        • Alternative A: Omit the zero before a decimal fraction only for the following statistics: p, r, R (and R 2), α (Cronbach’s α), η2 (Eta-Square, also ηp 2) .
        • Alternative B: If zero is omitted before a decimal fraction, this should be done consistently for the respective statistic.
      • Standard formats for common statistics, e.g., t(23) = 3.51, p = .002
        • commas (not semicolons!) between test statistics and p values
        • exact p values, if p not less than .001

      Text body

      • Regular font usage:
        • Main text
        • Abbreviations e.g., i.e., et al., etc., cf., vs.
        • Greek letter e.g., α, β, γ, δ, ε, σ, φ, χ, ω
      • Italic font usage:
        • Scientific names of taxa of species and genera (authorities in regular font, not in italics)
        • Long direct quotations
        • Symbols for variables and constants, such as p, F, U, T, N, r , but not for SD (standard deviation), SE (standard error), DF (degrees of freedom), and NS (non significant). These symbols in illustrations and equations should be in italics to match the text.
        • Do not use italics for emphasis
      • No underlining
      • Bold font usage:
        • Subheadings, sections and subsections
        • Figure captions – For the label and designation of figure’s parts:
          • Figure 1. Figure general caption text. A part caption text B part caption text N part caption text.
        • Table captions – For the label:
          • Table 1. Table caption text.
        • Designations of nomenclatural novelties should be in bold (e.g. sp. nov., gen. nov., comb. nov. )
        • In systematic sections for specimen designation such us: holotype, paratype, syntype, lectotype, isotype , etc.
        • Abbreviations of institutions or morphological characters or indices listed in the section Materials and methods, i.e.:
          • NMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna
          • NHML Natural History Museum, London
          • EL length of elytra
          • EW maximum width of elytra
          • TL total length (PL+EL)
        • In species descriptions – designation of main anatomical structures followed by a colon mark, i.e. Head:…, Thorax:…, Legs:…, Abdomen:, etc., in this case these should be followed by a section describing other anatomical organs and structures attached to these.
        • Subsection "Specimens examined" - the preferred order is as follows, HOWEVER THESE FINE-GRAINED FORMATTING GUIDELINES ARE NOT COMPULSORY. Authors who follow the guidelines will benefit from the submission of their specimen records to GBIF after publication. The records on GBIF will bear the article citation details contributiing to a wider dissemination and re-use of the published data.
          • COUNTRY • specimens [e.g. 1 ♂, size ]; geographic/locality data [from largest to smallest]; coordinates; altitude/elevation/depth [using alt./m a.s.l. etc.]; date [format: 16 Jan. 1998]; collector [followed by "leg."]; other collecting data [e.g. micro habitat/host/method of collecting]; barcodes/identifiers [e.g. GenBank: MG779236]; institution code and specimen code [e.g. CBF 06023].
            For Example: Holotype: CHINA • ♀; Sichuan, Kangding; 30.04°N, 101.57°E; 15.VI.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-06, original number ZYZ-2017-28. Paratypes: CHINA • 1♀1♂; Sichuan, Kangding; 29.VI.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-01, Hyp-2018-02, original number ZYZ-2017-08 • 1♀; Sichuan: Kangding; 2.VIII.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-03, original number ZYZ-2017-20 • 1♂, Sichuan: Kangding; 29.VI.2017; Yanzhou Zhang leg.; Hyp-2018-08, original number ZYZ-2017-029.
          • Punctuation:
            A bullet point "•" (unicode: 2022) is used to signify the beginning of a material citation. Within each citation, the different fields are delimited by a semicolon. A single field can be composed of several elements, which are separated by commas (e.g. the details region, area, town and street for the ‘locality’ field). Semicolons should not be used elsewhere in a material citation.
          • Repetitive data: Authors can indicate repetitive data with indications such as "same data as for holotype", "same data as for preceding", "same locality", "ibid", etc. as long as the same method and wording are used consistently throughout the paper.
          • ‘Missing’ elements: It is not necessary to include information such as "no date" or "no locality data"; just list the elements that are available.
          • see more details here
      • Quotation marks
        • Avoid quotation marks except for direct quotations, words defined by the author, and words used in unusual contexts.
        • Short quotations should be embedded in the text and enclosed in double quotation marks ("). Long quotations should be on a separate line, italicized, but without quotation marks.
        • Single quotation marks are to be used only for a quotation that occurs within another quotation.
      • Hyphen and dash characters
        • Consistent use of (-, –, —).
        • In contrast to parentheses an em-dash can be used alone.
        • En-dashes and em-dashes should not be spaced.
          • Hyphens (-) are used to:
            • link words such as personal names, some prefixes and compound adjectives (the last of which vary depending on the style manual in use)
          • En-dash (–) or en-rule (the length of an 'n') is used to:
            • link spans.
            • link numerals, sizes, dates and page numbers (e.g., 1977–1981; figs 5–7; pp. 237–258)
            • geographic or name associations (e.g., Murray–Darling River; a Federal–State agreement)
            • character states combinations (e.g., long–pubescent or red–purple).
          • Em-dash (—) or em-rule (the length of an 'm') should be used rarely:
            • only for introducing a subordinate clause in the text that is often used much as we use parentheses.

      Section hierarchy

      • No more than 4 levels, from hierarchical level 1 (H1) to hierarchical level 4 (H4)
      • Unambiguous hierarchy levels
      • No numbering of hierarchical levels

      Section titles

      • Capitalization:
        • For separated titles (usually H1-H3): Sentence case
        • For paragraph titles (usually H4): Sentence case

      Mandatory statements

      • Funding
        • If missing, add the following statement (depending on the number of authors):
          • The author has no funding to report.
          • The authors have no funding to report.
      • Competing interests
        • If missing, add the following statement (depending on the number of authors):
          • The author has declared that no competing interests exist.
          • The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
      • Acknowledgements (= non-financial support)
        • If missing, add the following statement (depending on the number of authors):
          • The author has no support to report.
          • The authors have no support to report.
      • Data Resources (mandatory for empirical articles)

      Geographical coordinates

      One of the following formats should be used:

      • Degrees, Minutes and Seconds (DMS), i.e.:
        • 36°31'21"N; 114°09'50"W
      • Degrees and Decimal Minutes (DDM), i.e.:
        • 36°31.46'N; 114°09.84'W
      • Decimal Degrees (DD), i.e.:
        • 36.5243°S; 114.1641°W
        • −36.5243; −114.1641 (using minus to indicate southern and western hemispheres)

      In-Text Citations

      • References
        • 1-2 authors
          • Jackson and Miller (2012) found out that...
          • A recent study (Jackson and Miller 2012) confirmed that...
        • 3 or more authors
          • Jackson et al. (2012) found out that...
          • A recent study (Jackson et al. 2012) confirmed that...
        • Multiple sources in chronological order:
          • same authors different years - separated by a comma:
            • Jackson and Miller (2012, 2015) found out that...
            • Recent studies (Jackson et al. 2012, 2015) confirmed that...
          • different authors - separated by a semicolon:
            • (Smith et al. 1998, 2000, 2016; Brock and Gunderson 2001; Felt 2006)
          • two or more fully identical citations (the same authors and years) are distinguished by adding the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year:
            • Jackson 2008a, 2008b
            • Jackson and Miller 2014a, 2014b
            • Reyes-Velasco et al. 2018a, 2018b
        • Sources with page numbers
          • Jackson and Miller (2012: 120–121) found out that
          • A recent study (Jackson and Miller 2012: 120) confirmed that
      • Figures:
        • Fig. 1
        • Fig. 1A, B
        • Fig. 1A–D
        • Figs 1, 2
        • Figs 1–3
        • Figs 1A, B, 3F, G, 7A
      • Tables:
        • Table 1
        • Tables 1, 2
        • Tables 1–3
      • Appendixes:
        • Appendix 1
        • Appendices 1, 2
        • Appendices 1–4
      • Referenced materials from other sources:
        • All figures, tables, etc., from other sources should be written with small letters i.e.: see fig. 2 in Author (Year) ...

      References

      • Author names: surname first; all given names abbreviated, no full stops, commas or spaces, i.e.:
        • Lyal CHC
        • van Tol J
        • de Albuquerque PRA
      • Different authors separated by comma
      • Year in brackets; no comma or full stop after it
      • No italics (except for Latin terms)

      Published papers:

      Polaszek A, Alonso-Zarazaga M, Bouchet P, Brothers DJ, Evenhuis NL, Krell FT, Lyal CHC, Minelli A, Pyle RL, Robinson N, Thompson FC, van Tol J (2005) ZooBank: The open-access register for zoological taxonomy: Technical Discussion Paper. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 62: 210–220.

      Accepted papers:

      Same as above, but ''in press'' appears instead of the year in parentheses.

      Electronic journal articles:

      Mallet J, Willmott K (2002) Taxonomy: Renaissance or Tower of Babel? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(2): 57–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00061-7.

      Paper within conference proceedings:

      Orr AG (2006) Odonata in Bornean tropical rain forest formations: Diversity, endemicity and applications for conservation management. In: Cordero Rivera A (Ed.) Forest and Dragonflies. Fourth WDA International Symposium of Odonatology, Pontevedra (Spain), July 2005. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 51–78.

      Book chapters:

      Mayr E (2000) The biological species concept. In: Wheeler QD, Meier R (Eds) Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, 17–29.

      Books:

      Goix N, Klimaszewski J (2007) Catalogue of Aleocharine Rove Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, 166 pp.

      Book with institutional author:

      ICZN [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature. Fourth Edition. London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

      PhD thesis:

      Dalebout ML (2002) Species identity, genetic diversity and molecular systematic relationships among the Ziphiidae (beaked whales). PhD Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, ## pp.

      Link/URL:

      BBC News (2012): Island leopard deemed new species http://news.bbc.co.uk/ [Accessed on dd.mm.yyyy]


      Submission Guidelines


      Submission Procedure

      Already have a Username/Password?

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      Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

      Submission of manuscripts to this journal is possible only through the online submission module. We kindly request authors to consult the Focus and Scope section prior to submission. In order to submit a manuscript to the journal, authors are required to register with the journal and/or to login. Once logged in, you will find the online submission system either by clicking the "Submit a manuscript" button.

      The manuscript submission process is separated into the following steps:

      • Step 1: Specifying the manuscript type and completing the submission checklist

      • Step 2: Choosing the payment option and requesting optional services

      • Step 3: Typing in the author(s) names and affiliation, title, abstract, keywords, and other metadata

      • Step 4: Assigning classifications categories for your manuscript using hierarchical classification trees

      • Step 5: Completing the submission metadata by adding details about any supporting agencies, conflict of interest, comments to the editors

      • Step 6: Uploading the submission pdf file and the additional files (see below for details on how to prepare it)

      • Step 7: Uploading supplementary files (see below for details) and associated metadata

      • Step 8: Suggesting reviewers, final verification of the submitted files and confirmation


      Organizing Your Submission

      Before starting your submission please make sure that your manuscript is formatted in accordance with the Authors Guidelines.

      Please note that the maximum file size that may be uploaded through our online submission system is 20 MB.

      Manuscripts submitted to this journal must be divided into separate files (no larger than 20 MB each) to allow their processing by our software. Before attempting an online submission, please consider preparing the following file types:

      1. Submission file

      Review the version of the manuscript in PDF format with all figures embedded. The total file size must be no larger than 20 MB.

      2. Additional files

      Original text file and high-resolution figures must be submitted during the same submission process as the additional files (Step 6) in one of the accepted file formats (see below). These may be compressed in order to reduce bandwidth during upload:

      • Text of the manuscript (DOC, DOCX, RTF, OpenDocument Format, ODF) with tables embedded in the text

      • Figures (each figure as an individual file in one of the following image file formats: EPS, TIFF, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, not larger than 20 MB each)

      • Equations (each equation as an individual file in one of the above-mentioned image file formats)

      3. Supplementary files (appendices)

      Large datasets or multimedia files, usually published as appendices in conventional print journals, should be uploaded as supplementary files complete with the associated metadata on the online submission form. Supplementary files should have their own legends.

      Most file formats are accepted. Text-only appendices must be in DOC, DOCX, RTF, or ODF formats.

      Should you have any technical problems in submitting a manuscript to this journal, please contact the Editorial Office at journals@pensoft.net

      We encourage authors to send an inquiry to the respective Subject Editor prior to submitting a manuscript. The purpose of the presubmission inquiry is to solicit rapid initial feedback on the suitability of the manuscript for publication in this journal. Pre-submission inquiries may also be sent to the Editorial Office at journals@pensoft.net.


      General remarks

      Manuscripts, which do not comply with the above guidelines, will be returned to the author for required changes. Only after compliance is established, will they be processed for reviewing.


      Article Processing Charges

      Thanks to generous support of the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Scientific Society, the journal charges a minor publication fee of 100 EUROs. Please contact the society at pharmacia@bsphs.org to provide payment after acceptance of your manuscript.

      Pharmacia Journal publishes all articles in open access format, making them easily accessible for the scientific community. Upon acceptance of your manuscript for publication, the authors will be requested to make a payment of 100 € as Article Processing Fee (bank charges extra) through Bank Transfer, indicating the Manuscript unique ID as reason for payment and sending a scanned copy of the bank transaction to pharmacia@bsphs.org. The bank details will be provided in the official acceptance letter.


      Core Charges

      Core services included in our Article Processing Charges:

      • Online submission and editorial management system, professional peer review and editorial assistance.
      • Personal attitude, technical support and fast reply to any inquiry coming from authors, editors or reviewers.
      • Automated email notification and alert system to save you time from tracking the progress of your manuscript.
      • Automated registration of peer reviews at Publons.
      • Copy-editing, technical editing, typesetting and proofreading services.
      • Publication in 3 digital formats: semantically enhanced HTML, PDF and machine-readable JATS XML.
      • Rapid publication process, normally within 1-2 weeks time after a manuscript is accepted for publication.
      • Full-color (no extra-charges for color), high-resolution hardcopy of reprints or whole issues.
      • Advanced data publishing workflows. 
      • Semantic Web enhancements to the article text. 
      • Markup and visualization of all biological taxon names and taxon treatments in your work, if present.
      • Immediate free access to the article on the day of publication.
      • Copyright retained by the authors, articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
      • Active dissemination and promotion through social bookmarking tools and social media.
      • Automated email acknowledgements to editors and reviewers upon publication.
      • Automated alert service through email and RSS on the day of publication. 
      • Registration of all new taxa in ZooBank, IPNI, MycoBank or Index Fungorum (where relevant).
      • Export and display of taxon treatments to Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), Plazi, Species-ID, Globalnames, and other aggregators (where relevant).
      • Immediate distribution of your publication to scientific databases, indices and search engines (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, CAB Abstracts, DOAJ Content and others).
      • Archiving in international repositories (PubMedCentral, CLOCKSS, Zenodo).
      • Bibliography search and discovery tool. 
      • Citation export in various formats.
      • Cited-by records statistics and display.
      • Article- and sub-article-level metrics (Altmetric, Dimensions, number of downloads separately for the PDF, XML and HTML, usage stats for figures, tables and supplementary files).

      Please note that the charges below are applicable for all manuscripts submitted after 1st of March 2019. Innovative papers and reviews of special importance for science are to be priced by agreement.

      Article size

      Article Processing Charges

      1 – 20 published pages€  100

      21 – 100 published pages

      €  20 / page

      (for each page above 20)

      101 and more published pagesBy agreement
      *Corrigendum€ 100 

      Please note that the above prices do not include VAT (Value Added Tax). VAT is applicable only for VAT NON-registered customers based within the European Union.


      Special Issues

      Special issues enable conference organizers or project coordinators to publish a number of articles under a common theme and editorship. Depending on the number of articles to be included, Pensoft offers discounts on APCs as described in the table below.

       

      Small

      Medium

      Large

      Number of articles

      < 10

      10 – 20

      21 +

      Discount on APCs

      5%

      10%

      15%

      PR campaign

      By agreement

      By agreement

      Included

      Institutional branding

      By agreement

      By agreement

      Included

      We are happy to discuss alternative arrangements if there is a better way to suit your needs for a special issue. Please do not hesitate to contact us!


      Discounts and Waivers

      Authors can apply for discount or waiver during manuscript submission if they comply with the conditions listed below. The journal will not consider requests made during the review process or after acceptance. Formal letters to the editors will not be considered outside the application process during manuscript submission.

      • Discount of 10 % is offered to:
        • Scientists working privately, not affiliated with an institution.
        • Graduate and PhD students if they are first authors of a manuscript. 
        • Scientists living and working in lower middle-income countries (http://data.worldbank.org/income-level/lower-middle-income) if they are sole authors of a manuscript, or authors' research is funded primarily (50% or more of the work contained within the article) by an institution or organization from the eligible countries. 
        • Discounts are also offered to our editors and reviewers, for more information see here
      • Waivers (once per year per (co-) author for manuscripts no larger than 10 printed pages, or for the first 10 pages of a larger manuscript) are offered to:
        • Retired scientists who are editors or active reviewers for this journal (1-3 reviews provided in the year before the manuscript submission). 
        • Scientists living and working in low-income countries (http://data.worldbank.org/income-level/low-income), if they are sole authors of a manuscript, or authors' research is funded primarily (50% or more of the work contained within the article) by an institution or organization from the eligible countries.

      The journal offers also various institutional programs and membership plans to support Open Access scientific publishing. To be eligible, the author must be a corresponding author affiliated with the institution or agency.

      Discounts and waivers do not accumulate.


      Guidelines for Editors


      How to Access a Manuscript

      Manuscripts can be accessed after login

      1. Login is possible after registration at the journal's website. Our Editorial Office will register all first-time editors and reviewers. New users will receive an automated notification with a request to confirm registration and account information, options for setting their password, email alerts and other features.  
        Note: All users can use their registration details to login in all three (Book, E-Book and the respective Journal) platforms of www.pensoft.net.
        Note: Please remember that you may have registered with two or more different email addresses, that is why you may have more than one valid account at www.pensoft.net. We advise using only one email address, hence one password associated with it, for all yours operations at www.pensoft.net. We highly recommend that, in case the user has two or more different accounts, to merge these through user's profile.  
        Note: The users can at any time change the initially set password and correct personal details using their user'profile menu (clicking on user's name in the upper right corner of the screen appearing after login).
      2. If you have forgotten your password, please use the function Forgot your password? or write to request it from journals@pensoft.net.

      There are two ways to access a manuscript

      1. After login, please go to the respective journal’s web page and click on My Tasks button in the upper right corner of the screen. This way, you will be able to see all manuscripts you are responsible for as author or reviewer or editor.

        Note: The manuscripts are grouped in several categories, e.g., In Review (no.), In layout (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.) etc. The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that were assigned to you.

      2. Click on the active manuscript link provided in the email notification you have received from the online editorial system. The link will lead you directly to the manuscript.


      General Responsibilities of Editors

      The Subject, or Associate, editors in Pensoft’s journals carry the main responsibility for the scientific quality of the published papers. They take the final decision on a manuscript’s acceptance or rejection and their names are listed as Academic Editor in the header of each article.

      The editorial process is facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. The online editorial system informs the Subject Editor about any change in the status of a manuscript and associated peer review and editorial process, from submission to publication.

      The online editorial system is designed to save time and effort for Subject Editors in checking the status of the manuscripts. There is no need for editors to visit the journal’s website to keep track on the manuscript they are responsible for. The online system will inform the Subject Editor, if an invited reviewer has accepted to do a review or has declined. The email notifications contain stepwise instructions what action is needed at each stage, as well as a link to the respective manuscript (accessible by clicking on the link in the email notifivation or after login – see How to Access a Manuscript).

      The Subject Editors are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but rather focus on its scientific quality and overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. It is the author’s responsibility to submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English. The Subject Editor should not hesitate to recommend either Reject, or Reject, but resubmission encouraged PRIOR to review process, in cases when a manuscript is scientifically poor and/or does not conform to journal’s style, and/or is written in poor English (see Note under point 1 below how to reject a manuscript prior to peer review). 

      It often happens that even carefully written manuscripts may contain small errors in orthography or stylistics. We shall be thankful if editors spot such errors during the reading process and correct them.


      Stepwise Description of the Editorial Process

      1. Once a manuscript is submitted, the Managing Editor (or the Editor-in-Chief) briefly checks the manuscript for conformance with the journal's Focus, Scope, Policies and style requirements and decide whether it is potentially suitable for publication and can be processed for review, or rejected immediately, or returned to the author for improvement and re-submission.
        Note: There are two ways to reject/return a manuscript prior to review process:
        -  Through the buttons Reject or Return to the author for correction in the Editorial tab. Please note, however, that the buttons will be made active only after a justification for the rejection or return is provided in the text field. 
        -  Through an email to the Editorial office explaining the reason for rejection or retrurn. The manuscript will be then rejected/returned through the online editorial system and the respective notification email will be sent from the Editorial Office.

      2. At this stage, the Managing Editor (or the Editor-in-Chief) can also check the manuscript for plagiarism via the iThenticate service by clicking on the "ïTehnticate report" button. Journals providing a peer review in languages other than English (for example Russian) may use other plagiarsim checking services (for example Antiplagiat).

      3. In case the manuscript is suitable, the Managing Editor (or the Editor-in-Chief) assigns it to the Subject Editor responsible for the respective topic (e.g., science branch or taxon). The Subject Editor receives a notification email on the assignment.  
        Note: The link to the respective manuscript is available in the review request email and all consequent reminder emails. The manuscript is accessible by clicking on the link in the email notifications, or via the user's dashboard after login. Please see How to Access a Manuscript above in case you have any difficulties.

      4. The Subject Editor has to read the manuscript and decide whether it is potentially suitable for publication and can be processed for review, or rejected immediately, or returned to the author for improvement and re-submission. Reasons for rejection can be a low scientific quality, non-conformance to the journal’s style/policies, and/or linguistically or grammatically poor English language.
        Note: There are two ways to reject a manuscript prior to review process:
        -  Through the buttons Reject or Reject, but re-submission encouraged in the Editorial tab. Please note, however, that the buttons will be made active only after a justification for the rejection is provided in the text field. 
        -  Through an email to the Editorial office explaining the reason for rejection. The manuscript will be then rejected/returned through the online editorial system and the respective notification email will be sent from the Editorial Office.

      5. In case the manuscript is acceptable for peer review, the Subject Editor has to invite reviewers by clicking on the Invite reviewers link. A list of reviewers will appear from which the editor can choose the appropriate ones or add new. 

      6. Once reviewers are chosen, the Subject Editor has to click the Invite reviewers green button at the end of the page which will generate emails templates with review invitations. It is highly recommended that the Subject Editor adds some personal words above the standard email text review invitation.

      7. In case a reviewer is absent from our users' data base, the editor can add his/her name and email through the Add new reviewer link, which will appear once the search field reveal no results. It is possible that the needed reviewer has already been registered in the Pensoft database either as customer or author/reviewer of another journal. If this is the case, then his/her name, affiliation and other metadata will automatically appear once the e-mail field is populated in the Create user online form.

      8. The Subject Editor receives a notification email if the reviewer has agreed to review a manuscript or declined to do that. The editor takes care to appoint additional reviewers in case some of the invited reviewers have declined.

      9. Once all reviewers submit their reviews, the Subject Editor receives an email notification, inviting him/her to consider reviewer’s opinions, read through the manuscript and take a decision through the Proceed button.
        Note: Editorial comments can be added in the online editorial form; comments and corrections are expected to be added also in the manuscript file (either on the PDF version or in the text file), that should be uploaded during finalization of the editorial decision process. 

      10. At this stage, the editor should take a decision either to (1) accept the manuscript, or (2) reject it, or (3) open a second review round. In case the manuscript is not rejected, but recommended for Minor Revision, Major Revision, or Acceptance, the author is expected to submit a revised version within a certain period of time and the Subject Editor will be notified by email about that.
        Note 1: Authors must submit revised versions as a text file using Track Changes/Comments tools of Word so that the Subject Editor can see their corrections/additions. Authors are expected to reply to the essential critiques and comments of reviewers separately through the online editorial system.
        Note 2: During the second, or next, review round, the Subject Editor may decide to ask reviewers to evaluate the revised version of the manuscript. He/she may also make a decision based on the author’s responses and the revised version of the manuscript without asking additional reviewers' support.

      11. After acceptance, the manuscript will go to layout and proofreading. The Subject Editor will be notified by email when the final proof is uploaded on the journal’s website. The Subject Editor is expected to look at the proofs and notify the Editorial Office through email in case the proofs need improvement.

      12. The Subject Editor may always access information on the manuscripts which have been edited by him/her through the menu My Tasks –> Subject Editor on the journal’s web page – In Review (no.), In Edit (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.). The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that were assigned.


      Guidelines for Reviewers


      How to Access a Manuscript

      Manuscripts can be accessed after login

      1. Login is possible after registration at the journal's website. Our Editorial Office will register all first-time editors and reviewers. New users will receive an automated notification with a request to confirm registration and account information, options for setting their password, email alerts and other features.  
        Note: All users can use their registration details to login in all three (Book, E-Book and the respective Journal) platforms of www.pensoft.net.
        Note: Please remember that you may have registered with two or more different email addresses, that is why you may have more than one valid account at www.pensoft.net. We advise using only one email address, hence one password associated with it, for all yours operations at www.pensoft.net. We highly recommend that, in case the user has two or more different accounts, to merge these through user's profile.  
        Note: The users can at any time change the initially set password and correct personal details using their user'profile menu (clicking on user's name in the upper right corner of the screen appearing after login).
      2. If you have forgotten your password, please use the function Forgot your password? or write to request it from journals@pensoft.net.

      There are two ways to access a manuscript

      1. After login, please go to the respective journal’s web page and click on My Tasks button in the upper right corner of the screen. This way, you will be able to see all manuscripts you are responsible for as author or reviewer or editor.

        Note: The manuscripts are grouped in several categories, e.g., In Review (no.), In layout (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.) etc. The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that were assigned to you.

      2. Click on the active manuscript link provided in the email notification you have received from the online editorial system. The link will lead you directly to the manuscript.


      General Responsibilities of Reviewers

      This journal uses a single-blind peer review process. The reviewers are encouraged to disclose their identity, if they wish so. The peer review and editorial process is facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. The online editorial system sends the Reviewer a review request, initiated by the Subject Editor or the Editorial Office. The online system will also inform about delays in the reviewing and will confirm a successful review submission. The email notifications contain stepwise instructions about the actions needed at each stage along with the link to the respective manuscript (accessible only after login – see section How to Access a Manuscript).

      The Reviewers are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but rather focus on its scientific quality and overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. If Reviewers recognize that a manuscript requires linguistic edits, we shall be grateful for them to inform both the author and the editor about this in the report. It is the author’s responsibility to submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English.

      It often happens that even carefully written manuscripts may contain small errors in orthography or stylistics. We shall be thankful if Reviewers spot such errors during the reading process and correct them.

      The manuscripts will generally be reviewed by two or three experts with the aim of reaching a first decision as soon as possible. Reviewers do not need to sign their reports, but are welcome to do so. They are also asked to declare any conflicts of interests.

      Reviewers are asked whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, how interesting it is and whether the quality of the writing is acceptable. Where possible, the final decision is made on the basis of the peer reviews. In cases of strong disagreement between the reports or between the authors and peer reviewers, the editor can assess these according to his/her expertise or seek advice from a member of the journal's Editorial Board.

      The ultimate responsibility for editorial decisions lies with the respective Subject Editor and/or, in some journals, with the Editor-in-Chief. All appeals should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, who may decide to seek advice from the Subject Editors or the Editorial Board.

      Reviewers are also asked to indicate which articles they consider to be especially interesting or significant. These articles may be given greater prominence and greater external publicity, including press releases addressed to science journalists and mass media.

      During a second review round, reviewers may be asked to evaluate the revised version against their recommendations submitted during the first review round.

      Reviewers are kindly asked to be polite and constructive in their reports. Reports that may be insulting or uninformative will be rescinded.

      Reviewers are asked to start their report with a very brief summary of the reviewed paper. This will help the editor and the authors see whether the reviewer correctly understood the paper or whether a report might be based on misunderstanding.

      Furthermore, reviewers are also asked to comment on originality, structure and previous research:

      Originality: Is the paper sufficiently novel and does it contribute to a better understanding of the topic under scrutiny? Is the work rather confirmatory and repetitive?

      Structure: Is the introduction clear and concise? Does it place the work into the context that is necessary for a reader to comprehend aims, hypotheses tested, experimental design or methods? Are Material and Methods clearly described and sufficiently explained? Are reasons given when choosing one method over another one from a set of comparable methods? Are the results clearly, but concisely described? Do they relate to the topic outlined in the introduction? Do they follow a logical sequence? Does the discussion place the paper in scientific context and go a step beyond the current scientific knowledge on the basis of the results? Are competing hypotheses or theories reasonably related to each other and properly discussed? Do the conclusions seem reasonable?

      Previous research: Is previous research adequately incorporated into the paper? Are references complete, necessary and accurate? Is there any sign that substantial parts of the paper are copies of other works?


      Stepwise Description of the Peer Review Process

      1. This journal uses a single-blind peer review process. Notwithstanding with that, the reviewers are encouraged to disclose their identities, if they wish to do so. 

      2. The Reviewer receives a review request generated by the Subject Editor or the Editorial Office and is expected to either agree to provide a review, or decline, through pressing the Will do the review or Unable to do the review link in the online editorial system. In case the Reviewer agrees to review the manuscript, he/she should submit the review within a certain time frame, which may vary in the different journals.
        Note: The link to the respective manuscript is available in the review request email and all consequent reminder emails. The manuscript is accessible by clicking on the link in the email notification, or after login. Please look at the section How to Access a Manuscript above in case you have any difficulties.

      3. The review should be submitted through the Proceed button. The review should consist of (1) a simple online questionnaire to be answered by ticking either Yes, No, or N/A; (2) comments addressed to the Author and the Editor in the online form; (3) associated files (corrected/commented manuscript file, review submitted in a separate text file, etc.), if any.
        Note: Reviewers can insert corrections and comments in the manuscript review version (PDF) and/or in the manuscript text file (usually Microsoft WORD, rarely Open Office file). When working in the PDF, please use either the Text Edits or the Sticky Notes tools (available through the menu Tools -> Comments & Markup of the Acrobat Reader). When editing in Microsoft WORD please use the Track Changes / Comments tools.
        Note: Associated files should be submitted at the end of the review process by clicking on the Browse button, then selecting the respective file on your computer, and then pressing the Upload button. A reviewer may upload as many files to support his/her review as needed.

      4. The Reviewer may decide to stay anonymous or open his/her identity by ticking the Show my name to the author(s) box at the bottom of the reviewer’s form. Please be aware that your identity might be revealed in the comments or in Track Changes corrections of the Microsoft WORD or PDF file you correct. Therefore, please make sure that you delete your name and initials in the options section of your word or PDF processor, if you want to remain anonymous.

      5. The review process is completed by selecting a recommendation from five options: (1) Reject; (2) Reject, but resubmission encouraged; (3) Major Revision; (4) Minor Revision; (5) Accept. The system will ask for one more confirmation of the selected recommendation before submission. The submitted review cannot be changed after submission.
        Note: Reasons for rejection can be a low scientific quality, non-conformance to the journal’s style/policies, and/or grammatically poor English language.
        Note: It is also possible for review and associated files (e.g., a corrected manuscript file) to be sent as attached files to the email of the Editorial Office. We strongly recommend to avoid this option but to upload reviews through the online editorial management system.

      6. Once a Reviewer submits a review of a manuscript, he/she receives an acknowledgement email from the journal.

      7. The submission of the review is also automatically reported to Publons. Reviewers are asked to confirm whether they want their reviews to be recorded on Publons.

      8. When all Reviewers have submitted their reviews, the Subject Editor makes a decision to either accept, reject or request further minor/major revision.

      9. After Subject Editor's decision, the manuscript is sent back to the author for comments and further revision. The author needs to submit a revised version in due time.

      10. Reviewers are notified via email when the revised version of a manuscript they have reviewed is submitted by the author. They receive a link to the revised version along with the editorial decision and all reviews of the manuscript. Reviewers are also provided with a feedback form should they have any comments on the revised version. 

      11. When an article is published, all Reviewers who have provided a review for the respective manuscript receive an email acknowledgement. In the email, there is a link to view/download the published article.

      12. The Reviewer may always access information on the manuscripts that are being / have been reviewed by him/her through the menu My Tasks –> Reviewer on the journal’s web page – In Review (no.), In Edit (no.), Published (no.), and Archived (no.). The number in brackets after each category shows the number of manuscripts that have been assigned to you.


      Science Communication

      Authors are welcome to join forces with Pensoft’s and ARPHA’s PR team to communicate and promote their research papers, thereby further increasing the visibility and impact of their work.

      While we use our journal’s social media channels (e.g. Twitter and Facebook) to post hand-crafted social media content for each article upon its publication, we offer a range of PR services in order to communicate especially significant scientific findings to a wider audience, such as: Custom social media content, Tailored PR campaign* and Guest blog post (details below).

      Please contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net to discuss the most suitable approach for your research. We look forward to hearing details about your study and why it should be considered of public interest.

      *The Tailored PR campaign is a paid service (for pricing, refer to Article Processing Charges -> Additional Services).

      However, we would be happy to consider discounts and even full waivers for studies of particular interest for science and society.

       

      Custom social media content (Free service)

      Authors are welcome to propose custom social media content to be distributed via the journal’s social media channels, regardless of whether they have already sought any other of our science communication services.

       Social media posts are expected to:

      • Be up to two sentences long or 280 characters (including links) for Twitter;

      • Be written in a conversational tone;

      • Contain minimal jargon;

      • Include the DOI link of the article;

      • Provide additional information about the study, which is not immediately evident in the text of the article (i.e. the post should not duplicate the title or the abstract);

      • Include attractive non-copyright imagery.

      To further increase the outreach of the posts, we strongly suggest that you also send us up to 10 social media accounts (e.g. co-authors, affiliations, funding bodies etc.), relevant to the study.

      Please note that our PR team reserves the right to edit your text at our discretion.

      To request our Custom social media content service, contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net.

       

      Tailored PR campaign (Paid service*)

      • Press release issued via the global science news service Eurekalert! and others (e.g. CORDIS), where appropriate;

      • News announcement personally advertised to our own contacts from the world’s top-tier news media;

      • News announcement disseminated via the journal’s and Pensoft’s social media channels;

      • Blog post issued on Pensoft’s blog (based on the announcement OR written by the author);

      • Additional social media content distributed via the journal’s and Pensoft’s channels;

      • Tracking and sharing of third-party users’ online content concerning the study.

      To ensure that we cover all key findings in our announcements, we encourage authors to prepare a brief press release draft using the template and guidelines provided.

      Please note that our PR team reserves the right to edit your text at our discretion. No press announcements will be issued until we receive the author’s final approval to do so. The Tailored PR campaign service is only available for studies published within the past 3 months.

      To request our Tailored PR campaign service, contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net. Alternatively, select the service upon submitting your manuscript and we will be in touch once your paper is accepted for publication.

      *For pricing, refer to Article Processing Charges -> Additional Services. Discounts and waivers for studies deemed of particular interest for science and society are available.

      #

      Examples

      Pensoft’s PR campaigns regularly make the headlines in top-tier media. Below, you can find examples associated with studies from across our journal portfolio:

        

      Guest blog post (Free service)

      • Blog post written by the author of the study and issued on Pensoft’s blog;

      • Blog post disseminated via the journal’s and Pensoft’s social media channels;

      • Additional social media content distributed via the journal’s and Pensoft’s channels;

      • Tracking and sharing of third-party users’ online content concerning the study.

      Blog post drafts are expected to:

      • Be written in free-text format;

      • Be written from the author’s own point of view, using conversational tone and minimal jargon;

      • Include at least one commentary quote from an author or a person relevant to the study;

      • Present some curious background information, meant to place the discovery in the right context;

      • Include attractive non-copyright imagery, featuring author attribution.

      Guest blog posts are not necessarily associated with studies published in a set time period, as long as their content remains relevant.

      Please note that our PR team reserves the right to edit your text at our discretion. No blog posts will be issued until we receive the author’s final approval to do so.

      To request our Guest blog post service, contact our PR department at dissemination@pensoft.net and pressoffice@pensoft.net.


      Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

      General

      The publishing ethics and malpractice policies follow the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA), the NISO Recommended Practices for the Presentation and Identification of E-Journals (PIE-J), and, where relevant, the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals from ICMJE.

      Privacy statement

      The personal information used on this website is to be used exclusively for the stated purposes of each particular journal. It will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. 

      Open access

      Pensoft and ARPHA-hosted journals adhere strictly to gold open access to accelerate the barrier-free dissemination of scientific knowledge. All published articles are made freely available to read, download, and distribute immediately upon publication, given that the original source and authors are cited (Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)).

      Open data publishing and sharing

      Pensoft and ARPHA encourage open data publication and sharing, in accordance with Panton’s Principles and FAIR Data Principles. For the domain of biodiversity-related publications Pensoft has specially developed extended Data Publishing Policies and Guidelines for Biodiversity Data. Specific data publishing guidelines are available on the journal website. 

      Data can be published in various ways, such as preservation in data repositories linked to the respective article or as data files or packages supplementary to the article. Datasets should be deposited in an appropriate, trusted repository and the associated identifier (URL or DOI) of the dataset(s) must be included in the data resources section of the article. Reference(s) to datasets should also be included in the reference list of the article with DOIs (where available). Where no discipline-specific data repository exists authors should deposit their datasets in a general repository such as, for example Zenodo or others. 

      Submission, peer review and editorial process

      The peer review and editorial processes are facilitated through an online editorial system and a set of email notifications. Pensoft journals’ websites display stepwise description of the editorial process and list all necessary instructions and links. These links are also included in the respective email notification.

      General: Publication and authorship

      • All submitted papers are subject to a rigorous peer review process by at least two international reviewers who are experts in the scientific field of the particular paper. 

      • The factors that are taken into account in review are relevance, soundness, significance, originality, readability and language. 

      • The journals allow a maximum of two rounds of review of a manuscript. The ultimate responsibility for editorial decisions lies with the respective Subject Editor and, in some cases, with the Editor-in-Chief. All appeals should be directed to the Editor-in-Chief, who may decide to seek advice among the Subject Editors and Reviewers.

      • The possible decisions include: (1) Accept, (2) Minor revisions, (2) Major revisions, (3) Reject, but re-submission encouraged and (5) Reject. 

      • If Authors are encouraged to revise and re-submit a submission, there is no guarantee that the revised submission will be accepted. 

      • The paper acceptance is constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. 

      • No research can be included in more than one publication.

      Responsibility of Authors

      • Authors are required to agree that their paper will be published in open access under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) license.

      • Authors must certify that their manuscripts are their original work. 

      • Authors must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere. 

      • Authors must certify that the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. 

      • Authors should submit the manuscript in linguistically and grammatically correct English and formatted in accordance with the journal’s Author Guidelines.

      • Authors must participate in the peer review process. 

      • Authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. 

      • All Authors mentioned are expected to have significantly contributed to the research. 

      • Authors must notify the Editors of any conflicts of interest. 

      • Authors must identify all sources used in the creation of their manuscript. 

      • Authors must report any errors they discover in their published paper to the Editors.

      • Authors should acknowledge all significant funders of the research pertaining to their article and list all relevant competing interests.   

      • Other sources of support for publications should also be clearly identified in the manuscript, usually in an acknowledgement (e.g. funding for the article processing charge; language editing or editorial assistance).

      • The Corresponding author should provide the declaration of any conflicts of interest on behalf of all Authors. Conflicts of interest may be associated with employment, sources of funding, personal financial interests, membership of relevant organisations or others.

      Responsibility of Reviewers

      • The manuscripts will be reviewed by two or three experts in order to reach first decision as soon as possible. Reviewers do not need to sign their reports but are welcome to do so. They are also asked to declare any conflicts of interests.

      • Reviewers are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but to focus on its scientific quality, as well as for the overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. If Reviewers recognize that a manuscript requires linguistic edits, they should inform both Authors and Editor in the report.

      • Reviewers are asked to check whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, how interesting it is and whether the quality of the writing is acceptable.

      • In cases of strong disagreement between the reviews or between the Authors and Reviewers, the Editors can judge these according to their expertise or seek advice from a member of the journal's Editorial Board.

      • Reviewers are also asked to indicate which articles they consider to be especially interesting or significant. These articles may be given greater prominence and greater external publicity, including press releases addressed to science journalists and mass media.

      • During a second review round, the Reviewer may be asked by the Subject Editor to evaluate the revised version of the manuscript with regards to Reviewer’s recommendations submitted during the first review round.

      • Reviewers are asked to be polite and constructive in their reports. Reports that may be insulting or uninformative will be rescinded.

      • Reviewers are asked to start their report with a very brief summary of the reviewed paper. This will help the Editors and Authors see whether the reviewer correctly understood the paper or whether a report might be based on misunderstanding.

      • Further, Reviewers are asked to comment on originality, structure and previous research: (1) Is the paper sufficiently novel and does it contribute to a better understanding of the topic under scrutiny? Is the work rather confirmatory and repetitive? (2) Is the introduction clear and concise? Does it place the work into the context that is necessary for a reader to comprehend the aims, hypotheses tested, experimental design or methods? Are Material and Methods clearly described and sufficiently explained? Are reasons given when choosing one method over another one from a set of comparable methods? Are the results clearly but concisely described? Do they relate to the topic outlined in the introduction? Do they follow a logical sequence? Does the discussion place the paper in scientific context and go a step beyond the current scientific knowledge on the basis of the results? Are competing hypotheses or theories reasonably related to each other and properly discussed? Do conclusions seem reasonable?  Is previous research adequately incorporated into the paper? Are references complete, necessary and accurate? Is there any sign that substantial parts of the paper were copies of other works?

      • Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

      • Reviewers should keep all information regarding papers confidential and treat them as privileged information. 

      • Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments. 

      • Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors.

      • Reviewers should also call to the Editors’ attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

      Responsibility of Editors

      • Editors in Pensoft’s journals carry the main responsibility for the scientific quality of the published papers and base their decisions solely on the papers' importance, originality, clarity and relevance to publication's scope.

      • The Subject Editor takes the final decision on a manuscript’s acceptance or rejection and his/her name is listed as "Academic Editor" in the header of each article.

      • The Subject Editors are not expected to provide a thorough linguistic editing or copyediting of a manuscript, but to focus on its scientific quality, as well as the overall style, which should correspond to the good practices in clear and concise academic writing. 

      • Editors are expected to spot small errors in orthography or stylistic during the editing process and correct them.

      • Editors should always consider the needs of the Authors and the Readers when attempting to improve the publication. 

      • Editors should guarantee the quality of the papers and the integrity of the academic record. 

      • Editors should preserve the anonymity of Reviewers, unless the later decide to disclose their identities. 

      • Editors should ensure that all research material they publish conforms to internationally accepted ethical guidelines. 

      • Editors should act if they suspect misconduct and make all reasonable attempts to obtain a resolution to the problem. 

      • Editors should not reject papers based on suspicions, they should have proof of misconduct.

      • Editors should not allow any conflicts of interest between Authors, Reviewers and Board Members.

      Human and animal rights

      The ethical standards in medical and pharmacological studies are based on the Helsinki declaration (1964, amended in 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2000) of the World Medical Association and the Publication Ethics Policies for Medical Journals of the World Association of Medical Journals (WAME).

      Authors of studies including experiments on humans or human tissues should declare in their cover letter a compliance with the ethical standards of the respective institutional or regional committee on human experimentation and attach committee’s statement and informed consent; for those researchers who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed and declared in the cover letter. Patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers should not be used, not in the text nor in any illustrative material, tables of databases, unless the author presents a written permission from each patient to use his or her personal data. Photos or videos of patients should be taken after a warning and agreement of the patient or of a legal authority acting on his or her behalf.

      Animal experiments require full compliance with local, national, ethical, and regulatory principles, and local licensing arrangements and respective statements of compliance (or approvals of institutional ethical committees where such exists) should be included in the article text.

      Informed consent

      Individual participants in studies have the right to decide what happens to the identifiable personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. Hence it is important that all participants gave their informed consent in writing prior to inclusion in the study. Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian if the participant is incapable) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.

      The following statement should be included in the article text in one of the following ways:

      • "Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study."

      • "Informed consent was obtained from all individuals for whom identifying information is included in this article." (In case some patients’ data have been published in the article or supplementary materials to it).

      Conflict of interest

      During the editorial process, the following relationships between editors and authors are considered conflicts of interest: Current colleagues, recent colleagues, recent co-authors, and doctoral students for which editor served as committee chair. During the submission process, the authors are kindly advised to identify possible conflicts of interest with the journal editors. After manuscripts are assigned to the handling editor, individual editors are required to inform the managing editor of any possble conflicts of interest with the authors. Journal submissions are also assigned to referees to minimize conflicts of interest. After manuscripts are assigned for review, referees are asked to inform the editor of any conflicts that may exist.

      Appeals and open debate

      We encourage academic debate and constructive criticism. Authors are always invited to respond to any editorial correspondence before publication. Authors are not allowed to neglect unfavorable comments about their work and choose not to respond to criticisms. 

      No Reviewer’s comment or published correspondence may contain a personal attack on any of the Authors. Criticism of the work is encouraged. Editors should edit (or reject) personal or offensive statements. Authors should submit their appeal on editorial decisions to the Editorial Office, addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or to the Managing Editor. Authors are discouraged from directly contacting Editorial Board Members and Editors with appeals.

      Editors will mediate all discussions between Authors and Reviewers during the peer review process prior to publication. If agreement cannot be reached, Editors may consider inviting additional reviewers if appropriate. 

      The Editor-in-Chief will mediate all discussions between Authors and Subject Editors.

      The journals encourage publication of open opinions, forum papers, corrigenda, critical comments on a published paper and Author’s response to criticism.

      Misconduct

      Research misconduct may include: (a) manipulating research materials, equipment or processes; (b) changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the article. A special case of misconduct is plagiarism, which is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results or words without giving appropriate credit. Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion. If misconduct is suspected, journal Editors will act in accordance with the relevant COPE guidelines

      Responses to possible misconduct

      All allegations of misconduct must be referred to the Editor-In-Chief. Upon the thorough examination, the Editor-In-Chief and deputy editors should conclude if the case concerns a possibility of misconduct. All allegations should be kept confidential and references to the matter in writing should be kept anonymous, whenever possible.

      Should a comment on potential misconduct be submitted by the Reviewers or Editors, an explanation will be sought from the Authors. If it is satisfactory and the issue is the result of either a mistake or misunderstanding, the matter can be easily resolved. If not, the manuscript will be rejected or retracted and the Editors may impose a ban on that individual's publication in the journals for a certain period of time. In cases of published plagiarism or dual publication, an announcement will be made in both journals explaining the situation.

      When allegations concern authors, the peer review and publication process for their submission will be halted until completion of the aforementioned process. The investigation will be carried out even if the authors withdraw the manuscript, and implementation of the responses below will be considered.

      When allegations concern reviewers or editors, they will be replaced in the review process during the ongoing investigation of the matter. Editors or reviewers who are found to have engaged in scientific misconduct should be removed from further association with the journal, and this fact reported to their institution.

      Retraction policies

      Article retraction

      According to the COPE Retraction Guidelines followed by this Journal, an article can be retracted because of the following reasons:

      • Unreliable findings based on clear evidence of a misconduct (e.g. fraudulent use of the data) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
      • Redundant publication, e.g., findings that have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification.
      • Plagiarism or other kind of unethical research.

      Retraction procedure

      • Retraction should happen after a careful consideration by the Journal editors of allegations coming from the editors, authors, or readers.
      • The HTML version of the retracted article is removed (except for the article metadata) and on its place a retraction note is issued.
      • The PDF of the retracted article is left on the website but clearly watermarked with the note "Retracted" on each page.
      • In some rare cases (e.g., for legal reasons or health risk) the retracted article can be replaced with a new corrected version containing apparent link to the retracted original version and a retraction note with a history of the document.

      Expression of concern

      In other cases, the Journal editors should consider issuing an expression of concern, if evidence is available for:

      • Inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors.
      • Unreliable findings that are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case.
      • A belief that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
      • An investigation is underway but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time.

      Correction

      Journal editors should consider issuing a correction if:

      • A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error).
      • The author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).
      • Other reasons that do not qualify as a sound evidence for retraction or expression of concern.

      Terms of Use

      This document describes the Terms of Use of the services provided by the Pharmacia journal, hereinafter referred to as "the Journal" or "this Journal". All Users agree to these Terms of Use when signing up to this Journal. Signed Journal Users will be hereinafter referred to as "User" or "Users".

      The publication services to the Journal are provided by Pensoft Publishers Ltd., through its publishing platform ARPHA, hereinafter referred to as "the Provider".

      The Provider reserves the right to update the Terms of Use occasionally. Users will be notified via posting on the site and/or by email. If using the services of the Journal after such notice, the User will be deemed to have accepted the proposed modifications. If the User disagrees with the modifications, he/she should stop using the Journal services. Users are advised to periodically check the Terms of Use for updates or revisions. Violation of any of the terms will result in the termination of the User's account. The Provider is not responsible for any content posted by the User in the Journal.

      Account Terms

      1. For registration in this Journal or any of the services or tools hosted on it, Users must provide their full legal name, a valid email address, postal address, affiliation (if any),  and any other information requested.
      2. Accounts created via this journal automatically sign in the User to the ARPHA Platform.
      3. Users are responsible for maintaining the security of their account and password. The Journal cannot and will not be liable for any loss or damage from failure to comply with this security obligation.
      4. Users are solely responsible for the content posted via the Journal services (including, but not limited to data, text, files, information, usernames, images, graphics, photos, profiles, audio and video clips, sounds, applications, links and other content) and all activities that occur under their account.
      5. Users may not use the service for any illegal or unauthorised purpose. Users must not, in the use of the service, violate any laws within their jurisdiction (including but not limited to copyright or trademark laws).
      6. Users can change or pseudonomyse their personal data, or deactivate their accounts at any time through the functionality available in the User’s personal profile. Deactivation or pseudonomysation will not affect the appearance of personal data in association with an already published work of which the User is author, co-author, editor, or reviewer.
      7. Users can report to the Journal uses of their personal data, that they might consider not corresponding to the current Terms of Use.
      8. The User’s personal data is processed by the Journal on the legal basis corresponding to Article 6, paragraph 1, letters a, b, c and f. of the General Data Protection Regulation (hereinafter referred to as GDPR) and will be used for the purpose of Journal’s services in accordance with the present Terms and Use, as well as in those cases expressly stated by the legislation.
      9. User’s consent to use the information the Journal has collected about the User corresponds to Article 6(1)(a) of the GDPR.
      10. The ‘legitimate interest’ of the Journal to engage with the User and enable him/her to participate in Journal’s activities and use Journal’s services correspond to Article 6(1)(f) of the GDPR.

      Services and Prices

      The Provider reserves the right to modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, the services provided by the Journal. Plans and prices are subject to change upon 30 days notice from the Provider. Such notice may be provided at any time by posting the changes to the relevant service website.

      Ownership

      The Authors retain full ownership to their content published in the Journal. We claim no intellectual property rights over the material provided by any User in this Journal. However, by setting pages to be viewed publicly (Open Access), the User agrees to allow others to view and download the relevant content. In addition, Open Access articles might be used by the Provider, or any other third party, for data mining purposes.

      The Provider reserves the rights in its sole discretion to refuse or remove any content that is available via the Website.

      Copyrighted Materials

      Unless stated otherwise, the Journal website may contain some copyrighted material (for example, logos and other proprietary information, including, without limitation, text, software, photos, video, graphics, music and sound - "Copyrighted Material"). The User may not copy, modify, alter, publish, transmit, distribute, display, participate in the transfer or sale, create derivative works or, in any way, exploit any of the Copyrighted Material, in whole or in part, without written permission from the copyright owner. Users will be solely liable for any damage resulting from any infringement of copyrights, proprietary rights or any other harm resulting from such a submission.

      Exceptions from this rule are e-chapters or e-articles published under Open Access (see below), which are normally published under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license (CC-BY), or Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (CC-BY), or Creative Commons Public Domain license (CC0).

      Open Access Materials

      This Journal is a supporter of open science. Open access to content is clearly marked, with text and/or the open access logo, on all materials published under this model. Unless otherwise stated, open access content is published in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence (CC-BY). This particular licence allows the copying, displaying and distribution of the content at no charge, provided that the author and source are credited.

      Privacy Statement

      1. Users agree to submit their personal data to this Journal, hosted on the ARPHA Platform provided by Pensoft.
      2. The Journal collects personal information from Users (e.g., name, postal and email addresses, affiliation) only for the purpose of its services.
      3. All personal data will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of the website and will not be made available for any other purpose or to third parties.
      4. In the case of co-authorship of a work published through the Journal services, each of the co-authors states that they agree that their personal data be collected, stored and used by the Journal.
      5. In the case of co-authorship, each of the co-authors agrees that their personal data publicly available in the form of a co-authorship of a published work, can be distributed to external indexing services and aggregators for the purpose of the widest possible distribution of the work they co-author.
      6. When one of the co-authors is not registered in the Journal, it is presumed that the corresponding author who is registered has requested and obtained his/her consent that his/her personal data will be collected, stored and used by the Journal.
      7. The registered co-author undertakes to provide an e-mail address of the unregistered author, to whom the Journal will send a message in order to give the unregistered co-author’s explicit consent for the processing of his/her personal data by the Journal.
      8. The Journal is not responsible if the provided e-mail of the unregistered co-author is inaccurate or invalid. In such cases, it is assumed that the processing of the personal data of the unregistered co-author is done on a legal basis and with a given consent.
      9. The Journal undertakes to collect, store and use the provided personal data of third parties (including but not limited to unregistered co-authors) solely for the purposes of the website, as well as in those cases expressly stated by the legislation.
      10. Users can receive emails from Journal and its hosting platform ARPHA, provided by Pensoft, about activities they have given their consent for. Examples of such activities are:
        • Email notifications to authors, reviewers and editors who are engaged with authoring, reviewing or editing a manuscript submitted to the Journal.
        • Email alerts sent via email subscription service, which can happen only if the User has willingly subscribed for such a service. Unsubscription from the service can happen through a one-click link provided in each email alert notification.
        • Information emails on important changes in the system or in its Terms of Use which are sent via Mailchimp are provided with "Unsubscribe" function.
      11. Registered users can be invited to provide a peer review on manuscripts submitted to the Journal. In such cases, the users can decline the review invitation through a link available on the journal’s website.
      12. Each provided peer review can be registered with external services (such as Publons). The reviewer will be notified if such registration is going to occur and can decline the registration process.
      13. In case the Journal starts using personal data for purposes other than those specified in the Terms of Use, the Journal undertakes to immediately inform the person and request his/her consent.
      14. If the person does not give his/her consent to the processing of his or her personal data pursuant to the preceding paragraph, the Journal shall cease the processing of the personal data for the purposes for which there is no consent, unless there is another legal basis for the processing.
      15. Users can change/correct their personal data anytime via the functionality available in the User’s profile. Users can request the Journal to correct their personal data if the data is inaccurate or outdated and the Journal is obliged to correct the inaccurate or outdated personal data in a timely manner.
      16. Users may request the Journal to restrict the use of their personal data insofar as this limitation is not contrary to the law or the Terms of Use.
      17. Users may request their personal data to be deleted (the right to be forgotten) by the Journal, provided that the deletion does not conflict with the law or the Terms of Use.
      18. The User has the right to be informed:
        • whether his or her personal data have been processed;
        • for which purposes the Journal processes the personal data;
        • the ways in which his/her personal data are processed;
        • the types of personal data that Journal processes.
      19. The user undertakes not to interfere with and impede the Journal’s activities in the exercise of the provided rights.
      20. In case of non-fulfillment under the previous paragraph, the Journal reserves the right to delete the user's profile.

      Disclaimer of Warranty and Limitation of Liability

      Neither Pensoft and its affiliates nor any of their respective employees, agents, third party content providers or licensors warrant that the Journal service will be uninterrupted or error-free; nor do they give any warranty as to the results that may be obtained from use of the journal, or as to the accuracy or reliability of any information, service or merchandise provided through Journal.

      Legal, medical, and health-related information located, identified or obtained through the use of the Service, is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for qualified advice from a professional.

      In no event will the Provider, or any person or entity involved in creating, producing or distributing Journal or the contents included therein, be liable in contract, in tort (including for its own negligence) or under any other legal theory (including strict liability) for any damages, including, but without limitation to, direct, indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages, including, but without limitation to, lost profits or revenues, loss of use or similar economic loss, arising from the use of or inability to use the journal platform. The User hereby acknowledges that the provisions of this section will apply to all use of the content on Journal. Applicable law may not allow the limitation or exclusion of liability or incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to the User. In no event will Pensoft’s total liability to the User for all damages, losses or causes of action, whether in contract, tort (including own negligence) or under any other legal theory (including strict liability), exceed the amount paid by the User, if any, for accessing Journal.

      Third Party Content

      The Provider is solely a distributor (and not a publisher) of SOME of the content supplied by third parties and Users of the Journal. Any opinions, advice, statements, services, offers, or other information or content expressed or made available by third parties, including information providers and Users, are those of the respective author(s) or distributor(s) and not of the Provider.